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i54        HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION

constitutions reproduced most closely those of the new univer-
sities of North Germany and the Low Countries, to which the
stream of Scottish students had been deflected about this time by
the heated controversies provoked in the older universities by the
papal schism. At first the scholars pursued their studies in the
" psedagogies " kept by the various masters, but before long the
German precedent was followed in all three cases, and the univer-
sity found a habitation in one " paedagogy " or college, which
provided lodging for the masters and their students as well as
rooms for lectures. In St. Andrews and Aberdeen, one or two
more colleges were established at a later time, but before that the
type of the Scottish universities had been fixed. As in their
German prototypes, college and university became practically
identical; a fact which explains the anomalous position of the
St. Andrews colleges as institutions able to confer degrees. The
most important effect of this fusion of college and university was
the restriction of teaching to a permanent body of regents, more
like the modern professoriate than the constantly changing regents
of Paris. There was one curious difference, however, between
the regent in medieval Scotland and the modern professor.
Instead of a regent confining himself to a single subject, there was
a system of " rotation," by which each regent gave a group of
students their whole instruction throughout the four years of
their course. Such an arrangement, without parallel in any other
university in Europe, serves as a commentary on the low standard
of education in the Scottish universities from this time till the
abolition of the system in the Eighteenth Century.

6. THE SCHOOLS DURING THE UNIVERSITY PERIOD

The zeal for learning which manifested itself most notably in
the rise and growth of universities throughout the Middle Ages
was no less evident in the wide distribution of schools. Except
in thinly populated districts, there were few parts of Western
Europe in which a boy needed to go far from home to attend a
regular grammar school, where in addition to instruction in
reading, writing, and religion, he could acquire Latin both as a
spoken and a written language, and perhaps even rhetoric and
logic, which were still regarded as " trivial" subjects, to be learned